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About Anatomy 
Study of general anatomy of structures and organ systems of the human body
Objectives 
Goals
The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in Anatomy aims at providing comprehensive knowledge of the gross and microscopic structure and development of human body to provide a basis for understanding the clinical correlation of organs or structures involved and the anatomical basis for the disease presentations.
Objectives
At the end of the course the student shall be able to :
1.Comprehend the normal disposition, clinically relevant interrelationships, functional and cross sectional anatomy of the various structures in the body.
2.Identify the microscopic structure and correlate elementary ultrastructure of various organs and tissues and correlate the structure with the functions as a prerequisite for understanding the altered state in various disease process.
3.Comprehend the basic structure and connections of the central nervous system to analyse the integrative and regulative functions of the organs and systems. He / She shall be able to locate the site of gross lesions according to the deficits encountered.
4.Demonstrate knowledge of the basic principles and sequential development of the organs and systems, recognize the critical stages of development and the effects of common teratogens. He / She shall be able to explain the developmental basis of the major variations and abnormalities.

Course Contents 
General Physiology
-   Principles of homeostasis
-   Structure of cell membrane
-   Transport mechanisms
-   Intercellular communications 
-   Fluid compartments of the body.

Blood
-   Composition and functions
-   RBC- formation, function and anemia's
-   WBC- formation, functions and Leukemia's
-   Hemoglobin- synthesis and functions
-   Blood groups- basis of blood grouping, clinical importance, bloodbanking and      transfusion
-   Haemostasis, anticoagulants

Muscle  and nerve physiology
-   Structure and functions of a neuron and neuralgia
-   Molecular basis of resting membrane and action potential
-   Transmission of nerve impulse
-   Structure and transmission across neuro-muscular junction
-   Neuro-muscular blocking agents
-   Types and structure of muscle fiber
-   Action potential in different muscle types
-   Molecular basis of muscle contraction
-   Muscular changes during exercise;
-   Properties of xcitable issue.

Renal system
-   Structure and function of nephron
-   Urine formation involving processes of filtration, tubularabsorption, secretion and     concentration
-   Structure and function of a Juxta glomerular apparatus
-   Role of renin-angiotensin system
-   Fluid and electrolyte balance and its regulation
-   Innervations of bladder, micturition, abnormalities of micturition
-   Artificial kidney, dialysis and renal transplantation
-  Renal Function Test                                                                                   

Digestive system
-   Basic structure of Digestive system
-   functions of
-   Salivary secretion
-   Gastric secretion
-   Pancreatic secretion
-   Intestinal secretion
-   Bile
-   Gastro-intestinal hormones-source, regulation and functions
-   Gastro-intestinal movements
-   Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer, Gastro-oesophageal reflux      disease, vomitting, diarrhoea, constipation

Endocrinology
-   Physiological actions and effect of altered secretion of Pituitary      gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland,
Adrenal gland, Pancreas and hypothalamus
Estimation and assessment of Hormones

Reproductive system
-   Functions of testis & ovary
-   Spermatogenesis & factors influencing it
-   Menstrual cycle-hormonal, uterine and ovarian changes
-   Physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation
-   Physiological basis for pubertal changes
-   Physiological effect of sex hormones
-   Contraceptive methods (male and female methods)

Cardiovascular system
-   Properties of cardiac muscle
-   Conducting system of heart
-   Haemodynamics of circulatory system
-   Regulation of heart rate and blood pressure and cardiac output
-   Electrocardiogram-physiological basis and applications.
-   Regional circulation-coronary, cerebral, capillary, foetal   and     pulmonary        circulation
-   Pathophysiology of shock, coronary artery disease, hypertension      
-   Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
-   Abnormal ECG

Respiratory system
-   Functional anatomy
-   Mechanics of normal respiration
-   Regulation of respiration
-   Transport of respiratory gases
-   Lung function test-clinical significance
-   Principles of artificial respiration, oxygen therapy, acclimatization     and     decompression sickness.
-   Pathophysiology -hypoxia, cyanosis and asphyxia.

Central nervous system
-   Organization of nervous system 
-   Functions and properties of synapse, reflex, receptors.
-   Functions of cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and
    limbic system.
-   Structure and function of reticular activating system, autonomic  nervous
    system
-   Mechanism of maintenance of tone, posture and equilibrium-  
    vestibular apparatus
-   Higher functions (Memory, Learning, Speech)   
-   Pathophysiology of Parkinsonism, section of spinal cord.
-   EEG and Sleep
-   Pain and referred pain

Special senses
-   Functional anatomy of eye                                                                
-   Physiology of image formation, colour vision, refractive errors Visual reflexes-
    pupillary and light reflex
-   Effect of lesion for visual pathway
-   Pathophysiology of blindness
-   Functional anatomy ear
-   Mechanism of hearing
-   Pathophysiology of deafness
-   Perception of smell and taste sensation
-   Pathophysiology of altered smell and taste sensation
-   Auditory & visual evoke potential

Skin and body temperature regulation
    Mechanism of temperature regulation
    Adaptation to altered temperature (heat and cold)
    Mechanism of fever, cold injuries and heat stroke.

Physiology of sports, exercise, yoga and   meditation,
    Cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustments
    Physiological effects of yoga and meditation

Skills 
At the end of the course the student shall be able to:
1.Identify and locate all the structures of the body and mark the topography of the living anatomy.
2.Identify the organs and tissues under the microscope.
3.Understand the principles of karyotyping and identify the gross congenital anomalies.
4.Understand the principles of newer imaging techniques like Ultra sound, Computerised Tomography Scan; Interpretation of Plain and contrast X-rays.
5.Understand clinical basis of some common clinical procedures i.e. intramuscular and intravenous injection, lumbar puncture, kidney biopsy etc.

Teaching & Learning methods 
1. Lectures - not more than 1/3rd of the total teaching hours.
2. e-mode learning of some of the topics.
3. Small group teaching-such as:
a) Demonstrations.
b) Tutorials.
c) Seminars.
d) Problem Based Learning.
4. Dissection / Prosected parts demonstrations / Instructions on mannequins.
5. Skills Lab with CDs of various stages of dissection.
6. Histology Lab.
7. Surface marking.
8. Imaging anatomy Lab.
9. Visit to the museum.
10. Preparation of scientific article.
11. Preparation of gross anatomy practical drawing book
12. Preparation of histology practical drawing book.

 

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